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Deciphering Heterogeneity:
The Good, The Bad and the Different

A series of seminar presentations supported by funding from the National Pharmaceutical Council

These presentations examine the important role of heterogeneity in influencing treatment outcomes and in evaluating evidence for making critical drug therapy decisions. This information is intended for pharmacy and medical directors, pharmacy managers, clinical support pharmacists, and other clinicians who interpret the medical literature.

Click on the links to view the slides (pdf) or the video.

Medical and Pharmacy Coverage Decision Making at the Population and Patient Level

Penny Mohr, MA
Vice President, Program Development
Center for Medical Technology Policy

Strategies to Manage Heterogeneity from the Health Plan Perspective

J. Russell Teagarden, RPh, DMH
Senior Vice President, Medical &
Scientific Affairs
National Organization for Rare Disorders

Module 1: Differences Within and Across Patients

Daniel Malone, RPh, PhD
Professor, College of Pharmacy
The University of Arizona

Module 2: Differences Within and Across Studies

Daniel Malone, RPh, PhD
Professor, College of Pharmacy
The University of Arizona


Heterogeneity Checklists

Assessing Heterogeneity Within Studies

The “average” benefit observed in a clinical trial may not be completely representative of the treatment effect for a typical patient. This 5-item checklist is adapted from a framework developed by Kent et al. (2010) to assess differences in the risk of the outcome of interest in clinical trial populations.

Assessing Heterogeneity Across Studies

This 4-item tool for assessing heterogeneity across studies was adapted from an 11-item instrument that was developed and validated for assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews, called the “Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews” or AMSTAR.


Video Interviews on Heterogeneity

View short videos about why it's important to consider heterogeneity when making health care treatment decisions.